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4th International Conference on Coastal Zones & Ocean Science, will be organized around the theme “Discovering the Innovative methods for the betterment of Coastal and Ocean science”
Coastal Zones Congress 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Coastal Zones Congress 2019
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Coastal zone is most dynamic, resourceful and disaster prone zone of earth surface where marine and atmospheric processes produce rocky coasts, as well as beaches and dunes, barriers and tidal inlets, and shape deltas
Coastal zone management is array of interconnected problems associated with population growth and development along our nation’s coasts and to balance environmental, economic, human health, and human activities and improvement of governance is essential to ensure accountability and transparency in coastal zone management.
Integrated Coastal Management is a dynamic, multidisciplinary and iterative process to promote sustainable management of coastal zones and integrates the biological, physical, and policy sciences for environmental challenges where land meets water in an attempt to achieve sustainability.
1. To ensure fresh and safe water availability
2. Protection from man-made and natural hazards
3. Optimizing use of coastal lands
4. Promoting economic growth
5. Sustainable management of natural resources
6. Improving livelihood conditions of people
8. Empowerment through knowledge management
9. Creating an enabling institutional environment
Chemical oceanography or Marine Chemistry studies the chemistry of marine environments including the influences of different variables like turbidity currents, sediments, pH level, metamorphic activity and Ecology. Ocean Chemistry involves inorganic, organic and biochemistry.
Inorganic chemistry is defined as the study of compounds that do not contain carbon, involve some non-living matter, diamonds.
Organic chemistry involves study of compounds that contain both carbon and hydrogen—two elements found in all living things.
Biochemistry is the chemistry of biological processes includes Molecular and cellular biology
Mangroves or also known as Halophytes are endangered shrubs which grow mostly in coastal saline or brackish water. Having a variety of recognized roles in the areas where they occur the prominent role of mangrove community is the production of leaf litter and detrital matter. They help in reducing surf and protection of shore from storms, hurricane winds, waves and floods, hold soil together and prevent erosion by stabilising sediments help in loss of life and damage to property in areas behind. Mangroves can also maintain water quality by trapping sediments, filtering pollutants, cycling nutrients originating from land. Organic matter is utilized by the inhabitants of estuaries/lagoons, near-coast waters, and coral reefs. Support as a food source for most the tropical commercial shrimps and many fish species. Accidents, such as excessive siltation, stagnation, oil spills at sea can cause serious damage to Mangrove ecosystem and reduce uptake of oxygen for respiration resulting in rapid mangrove mortality
The coastal ecology group performs research in coastal ecosystems in relation to climate change and other human influences and also aims in reducing effects of eutrophication, e.g. fisheries and invasive species. Habitat restoration in marine areas is a new field of research. Coastal areas are characterized by involving both commercial and recreational interests and in relation to nature conservation.
The ocean economy or blue economy is one of the most biologically diverse and highly productive system on the planet which serves as highways of economy for sea-borne international trade also includes water ecosystem preservation at local, regional, national and international level.
Fisheries Economy Includes Production, Distribution, Consumption of fish and sea food and all financial aspects of fishing industry. Fishing is the major source of income for people living in coastal areas yet fishery resources are difficult to manage effectively because they are a common property.
Coastal Economy is comprised of all economic activity that takes place in the geographic area, Coast line bordering of all the countries near to open Ocean. Identifies what is at risk from changing environmental conditions in our oceans and along our coasts.
Deep sea biology includes study all types of sea creatures, everything from whales to the plankton. The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1800m or more where Little or no light penetrates, hence photosynthesis is not possible therefore, plants cannot live in this zone and most of the organisms living in this region depends on falling organic matter produced in the photic zone, sinking organic material is composed of algal particulates, detritus, and other forms of biological waste, which is collectively referred to as marine snow.
Replenishment of mineral from the ocean floor is called as deep sea mining. The hydrothermal vents create globular or massive sulphide deposits, which contain valuable metals such as silver, gold, copper, manganese, cobalt, and zinc. To take ore to surface in large scale operations they are mined using either Hydraulic-suction pumps or Continuous-line bucket system. Recent technological advancements have given rise to the use remotely operated vehicles to collect mineral samples from destined mine sites
Coastal zone is a dynamic part of the Earth's surface where both marine and atmospheric processes produce rocky coasts, wind, climate, currents, as well as beaches and dunes, barriers and tidal inlets, and shape deltas. Coastal Processes is essential to plan effective coastal protection measures. It is also endangered to various natural hazards such as cyclones, storms, tsunamis which impact the coast.
Coastal process is formed by following processes;
- Corrosion / solution
- Hydraulic pressure
- Bio erosion
- Longshore drift
They have tremendous recreational and biological value which includes terrestrial and marine ecosystems like islands, wetlands, Grasslands and shrub hubs, barrier islands, transitional and intertidal areas, estuaries, floodplains, salt marshes, beaches, dunes, and coral reefs, as well as fish and wildlife and their habitats.
Marine microbiology is the study of the microorganisms in the marine environment and includes their biodiversity, ecology and biogeochemistry. Marine microorganisms rarely exist alone. They mostly combine to form communities, join with other small life forms, including the larvae of many invertebrates and fish to gigantic whales, for food. They are part of the global nutrient flow that keeps sulphur, phosphorous and carbon circulating through the ecosphere.
The coastal ocean is the place where the continents meet with the open ocean; therefore it serves as a “bridge” for transporting organic and inorganic, natural and anthropogenic materials between the land and sea.
Knowledge of the coastal ocean is very essential for the safe and efficient conduct of maritime trade, and for the defence of coastal nations and attacks by maritime powers.
Wave-deposited accumulations of sediment which located at the shoreline extending from wave base are called as Beaches which are the processing of waves that begin to feel bottom and shoal, across the Nearshore zone, though the surf zone to the upper limit of wave swash.
Beaches subtypes: 1. Wave-dominated beaches - three states —
2. Tide-modified beaches
Surf zone is the most dynamic part of the beach extending from the breaker zone to the shore. In breaking, waves transform their potential energy to kinetic energy, which is initially manifest as the broken wave of translation, or wave bore, which moves shoreward as broken white water. At the shoreline the currents can be deflected Longshore and water may return seaward as a rip current.
Shoreline protection is engineering effort designed to eliminate coastal erosion. Shore protection works are used to retain or rebuild natural systems (cliffs, dunes, wetlands, and beaches) or to protect man's creations (buildings, infrastructure). Due to Urbanisation and development to accommodate global population growth in combination with the effects of climate change has led to the growing need to protect coastal areas.
The ground where land interacts with water bodies is called as Coastal zone. It consists of Marshy bodies; wetlands consist of alkaline or neutral water chemistry and large quantities of dissolved minerals, aquatic plants which help in water purification, carbon sink and shoreline stability. It also serves a home to few animals.
Marine Robots perform a variety of tasks, they help in rising fish and analyse shipwrecks, and also help marine biologists, water engineers and landscape developers for their job. Recently, Underwater Robotics has grown from nascent navigation and control algorithms for underwater and surface vehicles, to powered autonomous underwater vehicles routinely able to dive Pacific beyond 6000meters. We have seen underwater gliders cross the Atlantic Ocean and unmanned surface platforms (Wave Gliders) cross the Underwater Robotics as a field is set up to make a major contribution to understanding large scale societal problems. Emerging marine robotic developments will afford scientists advanced tools to explore and exploit the oceans at an unprecedented scale, in a sustainable manner.
The coastal environment around the world is made up of a wide variety of landforms manifested in a spectrum of sizes and shapes ranging from gently sloping beaches to high cliffs and from bars to off-shore islands Coastal environment is defined as area present between ocean and land interface includes zone of shallow water and area landward of this zone.
Livelihoods in the coastal zone are adversely affected due to natural and man-made hazards like earthquakes, climate changes, erosions, dumping’s etc, and slowed down the pace of social and economic developments in this region.Climate extremes are unexpected, unusual, unseasonal weather changes include tropical cyclones, floods, droughts and severe storms, heat waves, cold waves and global warming.
The oceans are surrounding the continents offer a number of wonders, many of which are yet to be discovered. Water covers about 70% of earth’s surface and surface layer of earth consist of has plateaus, valleys, mountains, and trenches.
Ocean trenches are very deep elongated cavity bordering a continent or an island which develop in subduction zones where crust of old ocean from one strategic plate is pushed underneath another plate, raising mountains, causing earthquakes, and forming volcanoes on the seafloor and on land.